翻译有风险,旗渡更保险
翻译热线:400 100 6256

中文简体

英美法中“平民法官”一词的翻译

“平民法官”理解起来并不难,就是由平民担任的法官,其具体意思如下:

 

指不具备法律资格或未经法律培训而行使司法职能,或与受过训练的法官一同行使司法职能的人员。非职业法官在不同的法律系统中行使司法职能的方式也不同,主要有两类:一是一名非职业法官独自或几名非职业法官共同行使司法职能;二是非职业法官作为法庭顾问〔assessor〕或陪审法官与一名或几名职业法官共同行使司法职能。所以,在英国治安法院的非职业法官具有广泛的司法权,而且可以与职业法官一起在刑事法院审理对治安法院的判决提起上诉的案件。而在法国、德国和北欧的一些国家,职业法官与非职业法官组成混合法庭共同审理各种案件。此外还有一种非专业人员参与司法活动的典型形式,就是陪审团。但是陪审员在法庭上的任务只是查明案件事实 ,而不能称其为法官,其职责与正式的非职业法官不同。

 

​ 

但翻译时不可根据其意思进行直译。因为由于“平民法官”源于英美法制度,因此必然有专有的英文与之对应。

 

经谷歌搜索,“平民法官”一词主要以下三种表达:

 

1. Lay magistrates.

“Lay”一词常用于指具有自愿性质的、无薪水的任命( The term "lay" referred to the voluntary, unsalaried nature of the appointment.)“magistrates”地方法官、治安官,指在法庭中担任法官处理轻罪和小的冲突。A magistrate is an official who acts as a judge in law courts which deal with minor crimes or disputes。“Lay magistrates”本来主要是用于与过去的“professional magistrates”(即stipendiaries,领薪金的地方法官)进行区分,但随着之后“stipendiaries”变为“district judges”,这一术语便使用的少了。

 

2. justices of the peace;magistrates

In the legal system of England and Wales, there is a history of involving lay people, namely people from the local community who are not required to hold any legal qualifications, in the judicial decision-making process of the courts. They are called justices of the peace or magistrates.

 

以上内容源自维基百科,大致的意思是,在英格兰和威尔士的法律体系中,有着由普通人,即当地社区的人,参与法院决策过程的传统,这些人无需拥有任何法律资格。他们通常被称为“justices of the peace”或“magistrates”。虽然经在百度中搜索,这两个词通常被译为“治安官”,但根据以上英文,也确实具有我们所说的“平民法官”的意思。

 

Justice of the peace在美国的释义如下:In the United States, justices of the peace are elected or appointed and sit on the lowest of the state courts hearing minor civil matters and petty criminal cases, usually misdemeanors. They officiate at weddings, issue arrest warrants, deal with traffic offenses, and hold inquests.

 

以下为相关双语示例,供参考:

 

例如,英美国家数百年来所实行的平民法官制度,一些根本没有受过法律教育的普通公民被选拔担任法官,审理那些普通人较为熟悉的且能够作出正确判断的案件。这项制度主要存在于英格兰和威尔士的治安法院,以及美国具有有限管辖权的初审法院。

For example, in the magistrate system implemented in the UK and the US for hundreds of years, some lay people who have never received legal education are selected and appointed as judges to hear cases with which ordinary people are quite familiar and for which they can make correct judgments. This system mainly exists in the Magistrates’Court of England and Wales and trial courts with limited jurisdiction in the US.

分享到
相关资讯