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“司法”一词,你译对了吗

“司法”一词在汉语中有多种含义。当前百度百科中对其的定义主要为“指国家司法机关及其工作人员依照法定职权和法定程序,具体运用法律处理案件的专门活动。”但由于目前我国宪法对“司法”的概念并未明文界定。因此,“司法”一词往往是在不同的地方有不同的含义。正确的把握这些含义并根据上下文对“司法”进行不同的翻译对于广大翻译工作者来说至关重要。本文主要以某文章为例,探讨了其中多次出现的“司法”一词的译法。

 

原文1:一是要准确把握司法公平正义作为矫正正义的内在属性,理性认识司法的功能及其限度。国家通过立法实现分配正义,立法对正义的分配,必须基于公平原则,是一种初始的制度性分配。当初始的分配正义面临争议、产生纠纷时,就需要通过司法这种法定的救济程序予以矫正。司法本身并不直接“创造”或“提供”正义,只是通过法律手段使受到损害的正义得以恢复,对公平正义主要起到维护、保障和平衡的作用。

 

暂译:First, we should have an accurate understanding of the internal features of judicial fairness and justice as corrective justice, and rationally understand the functions and limits of the judicial system. A country realizes distributive justice through legislation. Distribution in this way is an initial institutional distribution which must be based on the principle of fairness. When the initial distributive justice faces or provokes disputes, the administration of justice is needed to correct it as a statutory remedy procedure. The judicial system itself does not directly “create” or “provide” justice. Instead, it restores the damaged justice through legal means and mainly plays a role of maintaining, safeguarding and balancing fairness and justice.

 

原文2:当今中国正在前所未有地走近世界舞台的中央,与此同时,中国司法也正在前所未有地影响世界司法的发展进程。

译文:Nowadays China is moving closer to the center of the world stage as never before, and at the same time, China’s judicial system is also affecting the development of global judicial system in an unprecedented manner.

 

原文3:二是要始终坚持司法民主原则,保障人民群众通过多种途径和形式有序参与司法

暂译:Second, we should continue to follow the principle of putting people first in our judicial system and ensure that the people can participate in legal affairs through various means and forms in an orderly manner.

 

以上两段原文中多次出现“司法”一词,但在不同的地方“司法”一词的含义不同,代表的词性也不同。如作为修饰语形容词出现的“司法公平正义”、作为名词形式出现的“司法的功能和限度”;又如含义范围较窄的“司法这种法定的救济程序”以及含义范围较广的“人民群众参与司法”等。因此,译员根据各处的具体情况,选取了不同的词进行处理。

 

“司法”作形容词时,较为简单,多用“judicial”一词处理,因此译员将“司法公平正义”译为了“judicial fairness and justice”。而当“司法”作名词时,则需根据其含义范围,进行对应的处理:司法可以指广义上的制定和执行法律的全部活动,亦可指狭义上的侦查机关、检察机关和法院的办案活动。因此,在“中国司法也正在前所未有地影响世界司法的发展进程”一句中,“中国司法”与“世界司法”的含义均比较泛,比较宏大,因此译员将此处的“司法”理解为其广义,并进一步将其处理为司法制度judicial system,以在忠实于原文的基础上尽可能地让外国读者理解这句话的意思;同样,本此目的,在“司法这种法定的救济程序”这一句中,由于“司法”后附限定词“法定的救济程序”,因此可以得出这里的“司法”主要指的是一种程序,应于“执法”等概念是并列的,因此,译员将这句中的“司法”处理为“administration of justice”;此外,在“保障人民群众通过多种途径和形式有序参与司法”中,无论是“judicial system (参与司法体制)”或是“administration of justice(参与执行法律)”均不够合逻辑,因此,译员根据这一语境,将此处的“司法”译为“legal affairs法律事务”,通过“legal”一词传达,以体现其广泛的含义,并将其更好地与人民群众相结合。

 

因此,关于司法一词,在本文中,译员一共采取了四种译法“judicial”、“judicial system”“administration of justice”、“legal affairs”,以准确传达原文的信息。这些处理在历年有关政府报告的双语文件中均有出现过:

 

今年,人民法院要认真贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,紧紧围绕“让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都感受到公平正义”的目标,牢牢坚持司法为民、公正司法主线,不断深化司法改革,切实做好执法办案等各项工作。

This year, the people’s courts will seriously implement the spirit of the series of important speeches of General Secretary Xi Jinping, closely center on the target of “allowing the people to feel the fairness and justice in every judicial case,” firmly uphold the cardinal line of justice for the people and judicial fairness, continuously deepen judicial reform, and conscientiously do all the work well in law enforcement and handling cases.

 

 

司法是人权保障的重要防线。中共十八大以来,中国坚持司法为民,将惩治犯罪与保障人权相统一,坚定不移推进司法体制改革,不断发展和完善中国特色社会主义司法制度,努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都感受到公平正义。

The judicial system plays a significant role in human rights protection. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, China has put people first in its judicial system, integrated criminal punishment with human rights protection, pressed ahead with judicial system reform, continuously developed and improved a socialist judicial system with Chinese characteristics, and endeavored to embody fairness and justice in each and every legal case.

——《中国人权法治化保障的新进展New Progress in the Legal Protection of Human Rights in China》

 

严格规范减刑、假释、保外就医程序,强化监督制度。广泛实行人民陪审员、人民监督员制度,拓宽人民群众有序参与司法渠道。

We must strictly regulate the procedures of sentence commuting, release on parole and medical parole, thereby enhancing the supervision system. We will extensively implement the people's assessor system and people's supervisor system to expand channels for the people to participate in legal affairs.

 

全面推进阳光司法。深入推进审判公开、检务公开、警务公开和狱务公开,依法及时公开执法司法依据、程序、流程、结果和生效法律文书。

Increasing transparency in the administration of justice. China promotes openness in judicial, procuratorial, policing and prison affairs, and releases timely information on the legal basis, procedures, processes, results and effective legal documents of the judiciary and law enforcement in accordance with the law.

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